Sweet Land of Liberty: The Forgotten Struggle for Civil Rights in the North

Sweet Land of Liberty: The Forgotten Struggle for Civil Rights in the North

Thomas J. Sugrue

Language: English

Pages: 736

ISBN: 0812970381

Format: PDF / Kindle (mobi) / ePub

Sweet Land of Liberty is Thomas J. Sugrue’s epic account of the abiding quest for racial equality in states from Illinois to New York, and of how the intense northern struggle differed from and was inspired by the fight down South. Sugrue’s panoramic view sweeps from the 1920s to the present–more than eighty of the most decisive years in American history. He uncovers the forgotten stories of battles to open up lunch counters, beaches, and movie theaters in the North; the untold history of struggles against Jim Crow schools in northern towns; the dramatic story of racial conflict in northern cities and suburbs; and the long and tangled histories of integration and black power. Filled with unforgettable characters and riveting incidents, and making use of information and accounts both public and private, such as the writings of obscure African American journalists and the records of civil rights and black power groups, Sweet Land of Liberty creates an indelible history.

The Radicalism of the American Revolution

Klansville, U.S.A.: The Rise and Fall of the Civil Rights-Era Ku Klux Klan

Empire of Deception: The Incredible Story of a Master Swindler Who Seduced a City and Captivated the Nation

Then Everything Changed: Stunning Alternate Histories of American Politics: JFK, RFK, Carter, Ford, Reagan

Joseph Smith: Rough Stone Rolling













men as the same beneath the skin. Sermons and hortatory articles emphasized the righteousness of open housing and desegregation. In the words of Buell Gallagher, a Congregational minister and president of City College of New York, desegregation was “God’s task, waiting for human hands to do it.” Jewish organizations funded the lion’s share of intergroup advocacy work in the postwar years. The American Jewish Committee conducted and disseminated research on “the basic nature of prejudice as a

the better-run camps—unlike the Kalamazoo, Michigan, center, where a group of restless corpsmen looted downtown stores and clashed with police officers in November 1965, just a few hours after Shriver had spoken there. But life at Camp Kilmer—as in many camps and training centers—was disorganized. Hastily launched programs often lacked instructional materials and qualified teachers. Trainees complained, with justification, that the camps were overcrowded and served bad food. “This is the biggest

Institutions (New York, 1994); Gerald E. Frug, City Making: Building Communities Without Building Walls (Princeton, N.J., 1999); and Richard Thompson Ford, “The Boundaries of Race: Political Geography in Legal Analysis,” in Kimberle Crenshaw et al., eds., Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings That Formed the Movement (New York, 1995), 449–64. “In the North”: AD, 600, 602. the NAACP defended Ossian Sweet: The definitive account is Kevin Boyle, Arc of Justice: A Saga of Race, Civil Rights, and

including Langston Hughes, to make a film about the “American Negro at work and play.” When the Soviets canceled the film—allegedly to appease American business interests hoping to expand into the USSR—Moon reacted bitterly. The experience left him suspicious of the Soviets. But in the Popular Front period, his shift to anticommunism was gradual. In 1935, Moon joined a group of liberals and leftists as an officer of the greater New York “sponsoring committee” for the National Negro Congress. The

New Yorkers, especially Jews, who made up about a quarter of the city’s population. During the war, Jewish groups were at the forefront of the battle for civil rights throughout the North. The American Jewish Congress, the Anti-Defamation League of B’nai B’rith, and the Jewish Labor Committee spearheaded national efforts to pass antidiscrimination laws; they joined with Hedgeman and the National Council for a Permanent FEPC to lobby Congress; and they were involved in nearly every state and local

Download sample