United States History: 1912 to 1941: World War I, the Depression, and the New Deal (Essentials)
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United States History: 1912 to 1941 discusses the election of Woodrow Wilson, the New Freedom, World War I, peacemaking and domestic problems, economic advances and social tensions, the Great Depression, the first and second New Deals, and New Deal diplomacy.
mine owner and famous for wartime relief efforts. Less impressive was his appointment of his cronies Albert B. Fall as secretary of the interior and Harry M. Daugherty as attorney general. Other cronies, some dishonest, were appointed to other government posts. 6.1.3 Tax Reduction Mellon believed in low taxes and government economy to free the rich from “oppressive” taxes and thus encourage investment. The farm bloc of midwestern Republicans and southern Democrats in Congress prevented cuts in
commercial banks, and separated commercial banking from the more speculative activity of investment banking. The Truth-in-Securities Act required that full information about stocks and bonds be provided by brokers and others to potential purchasers. The Home Owners Loan Corporation (HOLC) had authority to borrow money to refinance home mortgages and thus prevent foreclosures. Eventually it lent over three billion dollars to over one million home owners. Gold was taken out of circulation following
campaigner. Vicious attacks by Smith and Coughlin on Roosevelt brought a backlash against them, and American Catholic leaders denounced Coughlin. 9.3.4 The Election Roosevelt carried all of the states except Maine and Vermont with 27,757,333 votes, or 60.8 percent of the total, and 523 electoral votes. Landon received 16,684,231 votes and 8 electoral votes. Lemke had 891,858 votes for 1.9 percent of the total. Norman Thomas, the Socialist candidate, received 187,000 votes, only 21 percent of
reduced to $6.8 billion, with the WPA experiencing the largest cut. During the winter of 1937-1938 the economy slipped rapidly and unemployment rose to 12.5 percent. In April 1938 Roosevelt requested and received from Congress an emergency appropriation of about $3 billion for the WPA, as well as increases for public works and other programs. In July 1938 the economy began to recover, and it regained the 1937 levels in 1939. 9.4.3 Legislation of the Late New Deal With the threat of adverse
the time of Washington. Only with difficulty did Roosevelt’s managers persuade the delegates to accept his choice of vice president, Secretary of Agriculture Henry A. Wallace, to succeed Garner. The platform endorsed the foreign and domestic policies of the administration. 11.5.3 The Campaign Willkie’s basic agreement with Roosevelt’s foreign policy made it difficult for him to campaign. Willkie had a folksy approach which appealed to many voters, but he first attacked Roosevelt for the